The Criteria List pt. 2
A key teleological idea, this states that you must pursue the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Do NOT forget the implication that you can harm the minority for the sake of the majority, which makes this a teleological idea. People use this on deontology cases, and it is a woeful instance of ignorance and contradiction. Utilitarianism is also the single most common criterion. It’s a rare thing to go a tournament without seeing a utilitarianism case.
There are 3 variations of utilitarianism: act, rule, and negative. Act is what most people think of, in as, you judge what is best based on the circumstance. Rule is more deontological, but retains its teleological status, as it states that what is best for the majority is always what is best for the majority. Few people are aware of this dichotomy, so it could be an advantage to bring it up in cross-examination.
Negative utilitarianism is not standard, but it states that you minimize harm and restrict it to the least number of people. It’s the same idea going in the opposite direction.
Similar philosophies include pragmatism and political realism, doing the practical thing, and cosmopolitanism, which is doing what is best for the world.
A key deontological idea, this philosophy is primarily the work of Immanuel Kant. It states that whatever you do should be moral enough that it could be made a reasonable universal law. The implication is that you shouldn’t do bad things, ever.